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[转]如何征服考研英语写作的事务信函语言  

2009-11-26 20:41:39|  分类: english |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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随着近几年英语考试的剧烈变革,英语试题越来越讲究应用能力的考查,写作部分的命题改变了原来单一的简单提纲模式,采用了多种命题方式。事务信函迅速出现在国内考试的试题中,从2000年起,四级、六级、BEC、MBA联考、公共英语不定期考查了书信写作,2005年考研英语新大纲已经正式规定信函或其它应用文成为写作必考题型,和雅思考 试一样每次考查两篇作文,每次都可能涉及到事务信函。信函创作迅速成为写作的主力题型,需要英语教师改变授课内容,与时俱进,及时补充信函的创作策略及必 备语言。新题型的授课,对教师和学生都构成了新的挑战,以下是笔者在写作教学中的总结和心得,希望能够帮助考生快速把握信函的创作方法。

事务信函在考试中频频出现,主题类型较多,包括感谢信、祝贺信、投诉信、咨询信、建议信、申请信、邀请信、求职信、辞职信、订货信通知/安排信。 在多种类型中,最新考研大纲特别给出了订货信的样题。其实,主题变化多端,但只是内容上的简单变化,命题时给出了几个信息点,要根据信息点写段,相当于普 通的提纲作文。另外,四级要求120词,六级要求150词,考研只需要100个单词,对考生来说应当很容易写出相应的字数,我们需要把握考查点并抓住核心 内容准备。考试以段落语言考查为主,信封格式并不太重要,历年雅思和四六级都重视信体的创作,是否涵盖几大信息点、书面语句型语言的运用、礼貌客气的语气、措辞的正确性和精彩性成为阅卷人关注的要点

以下是对信函不同部分所用语言及句型的总结,如果能够加以背诵,并且在实际创作中学以致用,相信考生会写出成功的书信。

一.       信函的开头与结尾

书信的开头要称呼收信人,根据对对方的了解以及双方关系的亲密程度,需要采取不同的称呼方式。另外,事务信函结尾的敬语需要比较正式,可以采取右列 的多种方式。但不可太过随意,如写出 “See you soon”, “Good bye” 或者 “Thank you”, 则说明我们还是not on the right track。可参考的模式如下:

收信人 开头 结尾
已知姓名,但不熟悉
或尊为长辈
Dear Mr. Clark,
Dear Ms. Higgins,
Best wishes,
Best regards,
Lovingly yours,
Truly yours,
熟人及朋友 Dear Sue,
Dear Michael,
不知姓名,完全陌生 Dear Sir / Madam,
Dear Sir or Madam,
To whom it may concern,
Yours sincerely,
Yours faithfully,
Yours cordially,
Sincerely yours,
Faithfully yours ,
Cordially yours,
… …

二.       信函书面语词汇示例

事务信函与普通人际交往信函有所不同,普通的书信发给父母、同事、朋友、同学、兄弟姐妹,语气放松,语言简洁,口语性强,形式不拘一格。而事务信函 要发给公司、学校、机关和其它的重要部门,收信人可以是经理、老板、总监、主管、校长、主任、教授、导师、医生、律师、工程师或其它的重要工作人员。因此 要求语言正式,用比较复杂而且模式话的语言来串联全篇信息,并且给人一种庄重的感觉。各种考试之所以侧重事务信函,也是因为这种考法能够检验考生对于正式 书面语的使用,以及对4000以上词汇量的把握和熟练应用。以下的表达考生可以使用口语化用词,但可以酌情考虑把一些过于简单的用词替换为书面语用词

礼貌客气用词

意义 口语化用词 书面语用词
感谢 thank grateful; gratitude; appreciate;be obliged to sb.
高兴/荣幸 glad delighted; honored; pleased
热心/细心 kind generous; considerate; thoughtful; warm-hearted
抱歉/遗憾 sorry apology; apologize to sb. for sth; regret; regrettable
真诚的 true-hearted sincere; genuine; from the bottom of my heart
问候 say hello to extend one’s warmest regards to; best regards
造成麻烦/不便 cause trouble bring inconvenience

其它用词

意义 口语化用词 书面语用词
求助 ask for help request for assistance
引起注意 notice arouse/capture one’s attention; bring one’s attention to
适当的 fit proper; appropriate
方便的 easy convenient
维持 keep sustain; maintain
著名的 famous celebrated; prestigious; distinguished; of high reputation
大多数的 most the vast majority of
利用 use utilize; employ; put into practice/exercise
成果 result achievement; performance; exploit
关于 about as to; as regards; concerning; with regard to
购买 buy purchase;
巨大的 large enormous; immense; sizable; colossal; gigantic
小的 small trivial; slight
结束 finish complete; bring to an end/conclusion
停止 stop cease; terminate; suspend
获得 get obtain; attain; accomplish; acquire
想要/希望 wish intend to; have intention to; attempt to; desire to;
个人 person individual
命运 fate fortune; destiny
痛苦 pain sorrow; grief; torment; agony; anguish; distress
欺骗 cheat deceive; defraud; swindle
回忆 remember recall; recollect; reminisce
迅捷的 fast rapid; swift; speedy
迟缓的 slow tardy; inefficient
延迟 delay postpone; put off
剧烈地/显著地 sharply dramatically; considerably; substantially; significantly
越来越 more and more increasingly; in growing numbers;
不知道 don’t know unaware of; lack of information
困难/复杂 hard stern; tough; complicated;complex
在…之前 before prior to
退费/退赔 returned money refund; reimbursement // compensation

三.    信函常用句型

事务信函之所以在复杂性和功能性上超出其它文体,是因为它具有一套自己的特定语汇,体现在句型上,就是各类主题信函需要使用的各种功能句型。这些句 型的使用,提高了书信语言的正式程度以及规范性。如果考生即兴发挥,有可能用词和用句都过于简单化,语气随意,写出的效果也就使人发笑。但是掌握了这些句 型,就等于掌握了一种产品的制造方法,可以轻松地写出非常恰当到位的表达,结合具体信息点,各种书信也就迎刃而解了。

投诉主题

I am writing to you to complain about…

I am writing to express my dissatisfaction with …

I am writing to call your attention to the awful fact that …

I am totally disappointed to find that …

I can hardly bear/tolerate/put up with it any longer.

There are some serious problems that deserve your close attention. For one thing, … For another … Even worse …

If it is not properly settled, I would have to complain to the Consumer’s Association.

I request you to be kind enough to solve the problem as soon as possible.

I hope that the situation above will be improved as soon as possible.

感谢主题

I am extremely grateful to you for your kind/selfless help.

I am much obliged to you for your kind assistance.

I really appreciate your timely assistance.

I am writing to express my gratitude for the many kind deeds you have done to me.

It is very considerate and generous of you to make such a good arrangement.

But for your help, I would have…

Had it not been for your kind assistance, I would have …

Words failed me when I want to express my sincere gratitude to you.

It is the fine quality of your products and the first-class service that help you set up a world reputation.

For this reason, I am writing to express my heartfelt thanks and hope that your company will have a brighter future.

道歉主题

I must apologize to you for my terrible mistake.

I am awfully sorry that …

I am sorry for the inconveniences that I have brought to you.

I sincerely hope that you will understand that I offended you quite unintentionally.

Needless to say, it is my fault.

I am to blame for this unpleasant situation.

I sincerely hope that you will accept my apologies.

I sincerely ask for your forgiveness.

I am sure that I will not make such a stupid mistake again.

I hope the settlement of the matter will meet your demand.

咨询主题

I am writing to inquire about the details on …

I would like to obtain some information about …

I would be very grateful if you would be kind enough to provide me essential information about…

Your prompt and favorable attention to my inquiry would be highly appreciated.

I would be much obliged to you if you could let me know the procedures I have to go through.

申请主题

I am writing to let you know about my keen interest in the academic research on…

I would like to ask for your permission to attend the conference on August 31.

I would sincerely request that …

If additional information is required, please advise me at your early convenience.

Your prompt and favorable attention to my request would be highly appreciated.

I am looking forward to a favorable reply at your earliest convenience.

求职主题

I have read your advertisement in Nov.23 Beijing Evening News for a part time interpreter, and should be grateful if you could consider me favorably as an applicant for the position.

I wish to apply for the post mentioned in your advertisement in yesterday’s newspaper.

I believe I am suitable for the job due to my rich experience on the field and my pleasant personality.

Upon graduation, I first worked as… The following job was … and currently I am working for…

With the kind of experiences I have accumulated, I would expect a salary no less than …

I shall be much obliged if you would give me an opportunity for an interview.

I am looking forward with great interest to hearing from you regarding my application. 

邀请主题

I am writing to invite you to attend a party on…

I am particularly anxious to have you join our party on…

I feel it a great honor If you could participate in …

I should be much pleased if you would come to our party on…

We look forward to seeing you as our honorable guest.

推荐主题

I am very glad to recommend you a former student of mine, Mr…. to be a candidate for…

With reference to your advised position, I have the pleasure to say that he is the just person you are looking for.

In view of his previous achievements, I am convinced that Mr…. will become a successful graduate student/staff member in your university/company.

He has proved to be industrious, conscientious, responsible and skillful in carrying out his assignment.

If further information about him is required, please do not hesitate to contact me.

I would be most grateful if you would consider my recommendation and kindly offer him the job.

事务信函范例:申请信

一名英语专业的大学本科毕业生在联系去美国耶鲁大学读文学专业硕士,以下是他写的申请信,供各位读者参考:A Letter of Application

Dear Sir/Madam,

I would like to pursue a master’s degree in English Literature at Yale, your prestigious university. The following is my statement of purpose about making this critical decision.

I have obtained a bachelor’s degree from Peking University in English literature. The four-year rigorous training has helped me to lay a firm foundation in literary analysis and criticism. The professors here have not only inspired my interest in my major but also set me on the right track of writing research papers applying proper theoretical approaches. My interest focuses on two branches of British literature: 19-century British novels and Shakespeare’s plays. Under the instruction of my professor here I have read novels of Charles Dickens, Jane Austin, Emily Bronte and Thomas Hardy, as well as the main tragedies of Shakespeare. I have been deeply fascinated by the profound beauty of these literary works. However, owing to the limited depth of my research in these writers, I plan to continue my studies for a master’s degree in my major. My long-term plan is to get a solid command of professional competence in research methods, and advanced knowledge of specialties in the discipline.

I am applying for admission to Yale University not only because Yale is among the most distinguished institutions in the world but also because my interests are more in line with your research specialization. What’s more, Yale University boasts the best research faculties in the U.S. and the rich resources of research in my field of study. I’m expecting to gain a broad exposure to contemporary intellectual currents from the renowned Yale scholars and experts who maintain a foothold in a variety of these disciplines.

Thank you for your patience to read this through. If additional information is required, please advise me at your early convenience. Your prompt and favorable attention to my request would be highly appreciated. I am looking forward to a favorable reply as soon as possible.

Yours sincerely,

Li Ming

有了以上语言的积累,相信大家能够armed to the teeth, 对待写信可以胸有成竹。那么,你已经练就了事务信函的创作技能,鼓起勇气去考试吧,今后在实际工作中还可以继续收益,这也许是你在外企里重要的求生技能呢。

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